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Conditions

This page explains all conditions in the 5e ruleset. The rules here have minor deviations from the baseline 5e game, as well as expanded rules to help make the conditions easy to run at your tabletop.

A condition is an effect that changes what a character can do. Usually a condition hinders the affected character, such as when a character in stunned, but some can be beneficial, such as being invisible.

Conditions usually have a duration listed under the effect that caused the condition. 

A creature can be affected by the same condition at the same time more than once. The creature suffers the normal penalties from both instances, and is only freed from the condition when both instances are removed.

Note: in gameplay, an ability that causes a condition may have additional effects for the affected creature. Therefore, two effects that cause the same condition may not do the same thing.

Click here for an example (1).

Blinded
Blindsight and Blindness

Blinded

  • When blinded, a creature cannot see. Many checks may be impossible for the blinded creature (like using a perception check to spot someone in a crowd).

  • A blinded creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and dexterity saving throws.

  • Attacks made against a blinded creature have advantage.

  • A blinded creature's speed is halved.

  • A blinded creature cannot make attacks of opportunity because it cannot see the creature moving away.

  • A blinded creature cannot cast a spell or use an ability that requires them to see their target.​

Click here for further context (2).​

​Note: Blinded creatures that have blindsight can still see within their blindsight radius, but are blind beyond that. Click here for an example (3).

Charmed

Charmed

A creature that is charmed is charmed by a single creature. A charmed creature is in control of their actions.

  • The charmed creature cannot attack or otherwise cause any harm knowingly to the creature that charmed them, unless compelled to by other magic.

  • The charmer has advantage on all checks to socially interact with the charmed creature.

Click here for further context (4).​

Dominated

A dominated creature is charmed.

  • A dominated creature is under the direct control of the creature that dominated them. At the start of their turns, the creature that dominated them can choose to give them mental or verbal commands, which could be more general (like kill your friends) or specific (cast a fireball at your friends and then run away). The dominated creature must comply, and does their best not to twist the meaning of the command, and will interpret commands in the most reasonable way they can. The creature in control can issue a general command that takes the dominated creature outside their direct control, such as to guard a particular chamber or corridor. Dominated creatures will act normally when their commands don't affect their actions.

Dominated

Concentrating

Some spells or abilities have ongoing effects that only persist as long as the caster maintains focus on the effect. 

  • A concentrating creature maintains an ongoing effect. If concentration ends, so does the linked effect.

  • If a concentrating creature starts concentrating on a different effect, they stop concentrating on the first effect.

  • When a concentrating creature takes damage, they must succeed on a constitution saving throw, with a DC equal to 10 or half the damage they took (rounded down) or lose their concentration.

  • If a concentrating creature becomes incapacitated, they lose their concentration.

Concentrating
Confused

Confused

A confused creature can't accurately understand their surroundings, and act in random, potentially harmful ways.

  • On a confused creature's turns, they roll a d10 to determine what they do.

Cover

A creature has cover when they are partially blocked by terrain or obstacles. Unless otherwise stated, creatures do not provide cover. A creature might have cover against one enemy and not another.

Half Cover

If at least half of the creature's body is covered, or if the creature is shooting from around a corner or behind a small obstacle, they have half cover.

  • A creature with half cover has +2 to their armor class and dexterity saving throws against creatures and effects they have cover from.

Three Quarters Cover

If at least three quarters, but not all, of the creature's body is covered, they have three quarters cover. This extends even if only a small part of the creature is visible, such as with an arrow slit in a castle wall.

  • A creature with three quarters cover has +5 to their armor class and dexterity saving throws against creatures and effects they have cover from.

Full Cover

If all of the creature's body is covered, they have full cover.

  • A creature with full cover cannot be targeted by attacks or spells from creatures they have cover from. 

Most of the time, it should be obvious that a creature with full cover cannot be targeted.

Cover
Half Cover
Three Quarters Cover
Full Cover
Dazed

Dazed

A dazed creature has limited functionality on their turn.

  • At the start of their turn, a dazed creature must choose whether to move or take an action or bonus action, but can only do one of the three.

  • A dazed creature cannot use reactions.

Deafened

Deafened

A deafened creature cannot hear and their inner ear is of limited functionality, affecting balance.

  • When deafened, a creature cannot hear. Some checks may be impossible for the deafened creature (like using a perception check to overhear a conversation through a door).

  • While deafened, you are immune to spells and effects that require you to hear words or other sounds.

  • A deafened creature has disadvantage on dexterity saves and skill checks.

Drained

A drained creature has had their vitality or even their core abilities decreased temporarily, such as by disease or a shadow's sapping touch. When a creature is drained, either their hit point maximum or one of their ability scores is temporarily lowered.

  • If a creature suffers hit point drain, their maximum hit point total is reduced. Their hit points cannot be higher than that temporary maximum, and if their maximum hit point total reaches 0, they die. A creature that has had their hit point maximum reduced is more likely to die to massive damage. As normal, if an attack reduces a creature to 0 hit points or hits a creature with 0 hit points and deals excess damage equal to or greater than their new hit point maximum, they die.

  • If a creature suffers ability score drain, one of their ability scores (such as strength) is reduced temporarily. Everything affected by that ability score is also reduced accordingly.

  • The drained condition is always removed at the end of a long rest, unless caused by an effect (such as a disease) that says otherwise.

Drained

Exhaustion

A creature that is exhausted has been pushed beyond their body's normal limits. For an exhausted creature, both mind and body are starting to fail.

  • A creature can have up to 5 levels of exhaustion. Most effects that cause exhaustion give a creature one level of exhaustion.

  • For each level of exhaustion a creature has, they suffer a -2 penalty to attack rolls, skill checks, saving throws, and their spellcasting DC if they have one.

  • If a creature reaches 6 levels of exhaustion, they die.

  • When a creature finishes a long rest or otherwise sleeps at least 6 hours, they can remove one level of exhaustion.

Exhaustion (incomplete)

Frightened

A creature that is frightened is frightened by the source of their fear, which is usually a creature, but could be an object or something else. 

  • The frightened creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks (including skill checks) while within line of sight of the source of their fear.

  • A frightened creature cannot approach the source of their fear except if they must briefly get closer as part of their movement to end their movement further away.

Click here for an example where you cannot see the source of your fear (5).​

Frightened

Goaded

A creature that is goaded is goaded by a specific entity, which is usually a creature, but could be an object or something else.

  • The goaded creature has disadvantage on attack rolls against targets other than the entity that goaded them.

  • The goaded creature cannot willingly end their turn further from the entity that goaded them than where they started their turn.

  • A creature can only be goaded by one creature at a time. If the goaded creature is then goaded by another creature, they are no longer goaded by the first creature.

Goaded

Grappled

A grappled creature has been grabbed by another creature or hazard. Usually this requires that the grappler uses an empty hand or appendage to grab the grappled creature.

To grapple a creature, you must have a free hand or otherwise be able to hold the target. So long as you hold the grapple, your hand cannot be used for anything else. You can grapple any time you would make a melee attack on your turn. Instead of rolling your melee attack, you roll an athletics skill check. Your target can roll either an athletics or acrobatics skill check. If you roll equal or higher than your target, your target is grappled. Some creatures have other abilities that allow them to grapple without this contested skill check. A creature can willingly be grappled without rolling. Two creatures can also grapple each other.

This condition ends if the grappler becomes incapacited, or if any effect forces either the grappler or grappled creature to move (such as a shove attack). 

The Grappler

  • Can end the grapple at any time, including during another creature's turn.

  • Can hang on to the grappled creature instead of falling. If the grappled creature is smaller, they both fall instead.

  • Has their speed halved.

The Grappled Creature

  • If grappled by a creature (rather than a spell or other ability), they can replace one of their weapon attacks on their turn with an escape attempt. They roll either acrobatic or athletics, and their grappler rolls athletics. If the grappled creature rolls equal to or higher than the grappler, they break free. If the grappled creature escaped with athletics, they can choose to make this a shove attack and push the grappler either 5 ft. or knock them prone. Size advantage or disadvantage (listed below) applies.

If both are the same size

  • The grappled creature's speed is 0. The grappler cannot move away from the grappled creature without ending the grapple.

If the Grappler is two or more size categories larger

  • The grappler has advantage on the grapple check, and moves at full speed instead of half.

  • The grappled creature's speed is 0, and they are restrained (which prevents them from grappling the larger grappler).

If the Grappler is one size category larger

  • The grappler has advantage on the grapple check.

  • The grappled creatures's speed is 0.

  • The larger creature can drag the smaller creature. Whenever the larger creature moves, the smaller creature moves in the same direction.

If the Grappler is one size category smaller

  • The grappler has disadvantage on the grapple check.

  • The grappled creature has their speed halved. When the grappled, larger creature moves, the grappler moves too.

  • The grappler counts as occupying the nearest unoccupied part of the grappled creature's space. If the grappler ends the grapple willingly, they choose a space within 5 ft. (or the nearest unoccupied space) to move to.

If the Grappler is at least two size categories smaller

  • The grappler has disadvantage on the grapple check.

  • When the grappled, larger creature moves, the grappler moves too.

  • The grappler counts as occupying the nearest unoccupied part of the grappled creature's space. If the grappler ends the grapple willingly, they choose a space within 5 ft. (or the nearest unoccupied space) to move to.

  • If the grappler doesn't have a climb speed, their speed is 0.

  • If the grappler has a climb speed, they can climb the grappled creature. The climber can expend movement to move to any other space the grappled creature occupies. The climber has advantage on attacks against the grappled creature, and the grappled creature has disadvantage to attack the climber.

Click here for an example of grappling in action (6).​

Grappled

Hasted

A hasted creature moves faster than the environment around them, usually due to a time-warping magic spell or effect.

  • A hasted creature gains a +2 bonus to their armor class and dexterity saving throws.

  • A hasted creature's speed is doubled

  • A hasted creature gains a 'haste action' on each of their turns. A haste action can be used to make a single attack or use one of the Dash, Disengage, or Hide actions.

Hasted

Incapacitated

The incapacitated condition refers to any condition that renders a creature unable to do anything. There are four subtypes of incapacitated. If you are affected by the paralyzed, petrified, stunned, or unconscious conditions, you are also affected by the incapacitated condition.

  • An incapacitated creature cannot use actions, bonus actions, reactions, or any other kind of actions.

  • An incapacitated creature's speed becomes 0, and any effect that would increase their speed has no effect while they are incapacitated.

  • An incapacitated creature automatically fails strength and dexterity saving throws or ability checks (like grapple checks).

Paralyzed

A paralyzed creature is incapacitated. While paralyzed, the creature cannot move, but typically stays standing.

  • Attacks against the paralyzed creature have advantage.

  • Any attack that hits a paralyzed creature that is either a melee attack or made from within 5 ft. is a critical hit.

Click here for a note about ranged attacks (7).​

Stunned

A stunned creature is incapacitated.

  • A stunned creature can only speak in short, faltering phrases.

  • Attacks against the stunned creature have advantage.

Petrified

A petrified creature is incapacitated.

A petrified creature has been transformed into stone or some other inert material. This also transforms anything the creature was carrying (with the possible exception of another creature). The petrified creature is solid, and the petrification might fill space inside or around the creature. A petrified creature's weight usually increases. For most creatures petrified as stone, their weight is multiplied by 10.

  • A petrified creature's biological processes halt. The creature is completely immobile and unaware of their surroundings. The creature stops aging, and any poison or disease stops progressing or harming them, though they will resume if the creature is unpetrified.

  • Attacks against the petrified creature have advantage.

  • A petrified creature has immunity to poison, the poisoned condition, and disease.

  • A petrified creature has resistance to all other damage.

Unconscious

An unconscious creature is incapacitated.

  • The creature immediately drops what they're holding and falls prone.

  • An unconscious creature loses awareness of their surroundings. They cannot speak or make any voluntary movement.

  • Attacks against the unconscious creature have advantage.

  • Any attack that hits an unconscious creature that is either a melee attack or made from within 5 ft. is a critical hit.

Click here for a note about ranged attacks (7).​

Incapacitated
Paralyzed
Petrified
Stunned
Unconscious

Invisible

An invisible creature gains no benefits against creatures that can see invisible creatures.

  • The invisible creature has advantage on attack rolls.

  • Attack rolls against the invisible creature have disadvantage.

  • The invisible creature can hide even when in direct line of sight and has advantage on stealth checks.

  • The creature cannot be seen or targeted with attacks of opportunity or spells that require the caster to see the invisible creature.

  • Anything the invisible creature is wearing or carrying becomes invisible while being carried. If the invisible creature tries to carry something that encumbers them, the item they are trying to carry is not invisible.

Click here for further context (8).​

Invisible

Obscured

A creature that is obscured is hard or impossible for other creatures to see. Like with cover, a creature may be obscured from one creature and not another.

A creature standing in low light or total darkness is obscured from creatures that can't see them with darkvision. A creature standing in low light is lightly obscured. A creature standing in total darkness is heavily obscured.

Lightly Obscured

A creature is lightly obscured when something causes them to be hard, but not impossible, to see. Examples include low light, thick foliage, or murky water. 

  • A lightly obscured creature can hide using a stealth check even if they can be partially seen (normally, a creature in plain view cannot hide).

  • A lightly obscured creature has advantage on stealth checks.

Heavily Obscured

A creature is heavily obscured when something makes them impossible to see. Examples include total darkness, thick fog, or a heavy smoke.

  • A heavily obscured creature has advantage on stealth checks.

  • A heavily obscured creature has advantage on attack rolls and attack rolls against them have disadvantage.

  • A heavily obscured creature cannot be seen or targeted with spells that require the caster to see the heavily obscured creature.

  • Often, a creature that is heavily obscured is also blind to their surroundings.

Obscured
Lightly Obscured
Heavily Obscured

Poisoned

  • A poisoned creature has disadvantage on attack rolls and ability checks (which includes skill checks).

Poisoned
Prone

Prone

A prone character is lying on the ground, whether on purpose or not.

  • A prone creature has disadvantage on attack rolls.

  • An attack that is either a melee attack or made from within 5 ft. has advantage on an attack roll against a prone target.

  • A ranged attack against a prone creature has disadvantage.

  • A prone creature can spend half of their movement to stand up, ending the condition, or they can crawl, which costs them 3 ft. of movement for every 1 ft. they move.

Click here for an example (9).​

Restrained

Restrained

A restrained creature is held mostly in place.

  • A restrained creature's speed becomes 0, and any effect that would increase their speed has no effect while they are restrained.

  • A restrained creature has disadvantage on attack rolls.

  • Attacks made against a restrained creature have advantage.

  • A restrained creature has disadvantage on dexterity saving throws.

  • A restrained creature cannot use somatic components in spellcasting.

  • When a restrained creature is first restrained, they release all creatures they have grappled, and they cannot begin new grapples.

Silenced

Silenced

  • A silenced creature cannot speak or make any other verbal sound.

  • A silenced creature cannot cast spells that require a verbal component.

Siphoned

Siphoned

A siphoned creature's magic has been weakened.

  • All damage or healing done by a siphoned creature with spells or magical abilities is halved.

  • All creatures have advantage on saves against spells cast by a siphoned creature.

Slowed

Slowed

A slowed creature moves slower than the environment around them, usually due to a time-warping magic spell or effect.

  • A slowed creature has disadvantage on all attack rolls.

  • A slowed creature suffers a -2 penalty to their armor class and dexterity saving throws.

  • A slowed creature cannot use reactions.

  • A slowed creature's speed is halved

  • A slowed creature casting a spell rolls a d20. On an 11 or higher, the spell triggers. On a 10 or lower, the spell is delayed and the slowed caster must use their action (or bonus action, if the spell takes a bonus action to cast) on their next turn to complete the spell. If the caster chooses not to continue casting the spell or is unable to on their next turn, the spell slot is consumed anyway. For the sake of casting multiple spells in the same turn, this counts as if the caster used the spell on both turns.

Surprised

When combat starts and a creature did not realize there was a threat present, that creature is surprised. Usually a creature is surprised because their enemy used stealth to attack before being noticed. In an ambush scenario, the ambushing creatures roll a stealth check. If all ambushing creatures roll equal to or higher than a given target's passive perception score (which is 10 + their perception skill bonus), then the given target is surprised.

  • A surprised creature has a -20 penalty to their initiative rolls.

  • A surprised creature cannot use reactions, and has disadvantage on dexterity saving throws.

  • As soon as a surprised creature ends their turn, they are no longer surprised.

Click here for further context (10).​

Surprised

Weakened

A weakened creature's body is less able to perform physical tasks.

  • A weakened creature has disadvantage on strength and dexterity saving throws and skill checks (like athletics or stealth checks).

  • A weakened creature does half as much damage with weapon attacks.

Weakened
Notes and Examples
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Notes and Examples

(1) An example of overlapping conditions: 

dryad can use fey charm to cause a goblin to be affected by the charmed condition. While charmed by the dryad, the charmed creature takes the dryad's requests as favorably as possible. However, when a wizard then casts charm person on the same goblin, the charmed humanoid can freely decide to disobey the wizard's order as much as they want. Similarly, if an ability says it causes a condition like charmed without any further detail, it only does what is listed here.

The goblin is simultaneously affected by both charm effects. The goblin is only completely clear of mind once both charm effects end.

(2) Regarding the blinded condition

The blinded condition in 5e is not always intuitive. An archer can attack any creature they want while blinded, only suffering disadvantage.

 

A blinded creature knows where other creatures are for the sake of moving closer to them. The GM may rule that a blinded character is unaware of things in their environment beyond what the blinded condition prescribes.

A GM may wish to rule that a blinded spellcaster can occassionally cast spells that normally require line of sight. We recommend allowing blinded casters to cast such spells when in physical contact with the target, such as when the caster is grappling an enemy, or when the spellcaster is swallowed by a large creature.

(3) An example of the blinded condition interacting with blindsight:

An Adult Red Dragon has a blindsight of 60 ft. This means if the dragon is blinded, a fighter attacking the dragon with a melee attack does not get advantage on the attack roll, because the dragon can see the fighter. However, an archer 100 ft. away does have advantage on attack rolls against the dragon because the dragon cannot see the archer.

(4) Regarding the charmed condition: 

A charmed creature might be in awe of their charmer or consider them very likeable, even if that would not normally make sense.

If a player character is charmed, the player should be in charge of how their character behaves. However, if the character is the subject of a charm effect like a vampire's Charm ability, the player character may have to follow certain rules or guidelines. In a few cases, a charm effect may allow the charmer total control of the charmed creature.

(5) Regarding sources of the frightened condition:

In the case where the source of the fear is invisible or hidden, the GM may rule whether the frightened creature suffers the penalties of this condition or not. An invisible hag might have frightened a character, but the character might not know the hag is in the room, and so might not have disadvantage on rolls. Or perhaps the character knows the hag is right behind a door, and is affected as if the hag was within line of sight. The GM decides whether the creature is affected in these cases.

(6) An example of the grappled condition:

vampire spawn grapples a commoner. The vampire spawn then moves 15 ft., which, since the vampire spawn's speed is 30, is all of the vampire spawn's movement. Then a guard shoves the vampire spawn, moving the spawn 5 ft. This frees the commoner from the grappled condition.

(7) Regarding ranged attacks made against paralyzed and unconscious creatures:

A ranged attack made from 30 ft. away against a paralyzed target has advantage.

A ranged attack made from 30 ft. away against an unconscious target has advantage and disadvantage (because the unconscious creature is prone). In this case, the attack is rolled without advantage or disadvantage.

A ranged attack made from within 5 ft. against a paralyzed or unconscious creature has advantage and disadvantage. The attack is rolled without advantage or disadvantage. Such a ranged attack becomes a critical hit as long as it hits.

(8) Regarding the invisible condition:

The invisible creature still leaves tracks and makes sound. We recommend that all creatures should know the location of an invisible creature in combat unless that creature is hiding. Note that some creatures or characters may be able to attack and hide in the same turn, and invisible creatures do not provoke attacks of opportunity, so some invisible creatures can attack, move, and then hide in an unknown location.

If a creature has blindsight, truesight, or some other way of seeing invisible creautres, the invisible creature gains no benefit against the creature that can see them.

(9) An example of the prone condition:

commoner is shoved prone by a zombie. Another zombie then rolls an attack against the commoner, rolling with advantage. A skeleton archer 40 ft. from the commoner then attacks the commoner, rolling the attack roll with disadvantage. Then a second skeleton archer moves to a spot within 5 ft. of the prone commoner, rolling its attack roll without disadvantage or advantage. While normally a point blank shot would have disadvantage, the advantage granted by being within 5 ft. of the prone target causes the roll to be made normally. 

(10) Regarding the surprised condition:

One member of the party may be surprised while others are not. Perhaps the goblins sneaking up on your party caught the ranger's attention, but not the wizard's.

The DM may decide that the surprised condition is appropriate outside of an ambush. If a doppleganger suddenly sheds their disguise and attacks, the victims are likely surprised, unless they knew the doppleganger was in disguise. Another example would be a supposedly friendly merchant suddenly unleashing a fireball spell upon the party. In this case, you would likely roll the shopkeeper's deception against the party's passive insight scores, similar to stealth in an ambush scenario. 

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